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What is Islam؟
Answer: Islam is a religious system begun in the seventh century by Muhammad. Muslims follow the teachings of the Qur’an and strive to keep the Five Pillars.
The History of Islam:
In the seventh century, the angel Gabriel visited Muhammad . During these angelic visitations, which continued for about 23 years until Muhammad's death, the angel purportedly revealed to Muhammad the words of Allah (the Arabic word for “God” used by Muslims). the Qur'an, Islam's holy book. Islam means “submission,” deriving from a root word that means “peace.” The word Muslim means “one who submits to Allah.”
The Doctrine of Islam
Muslims summarize their doctrine in six articles of faith:
1. Belief in one Allah: Muslims believe Allah is one, eternal, creator, and sovereign.
2. Belief in the angels
3. Belief in the prophets: The prophets include the biblical prophets but end with Muhammad as Allah’s final prophet.
4. Belief in the revelations of Allah: Muslims accept certain portions of the Bible, such as the Torah and the Gospels. They believe the Qur'an is the preexistent, perfect word of Allah.
5. Belief in the last day of judgment and the hereafter: Everyone will be resurrected for judgment into either paradise or hell.
6. Belief in predestination: Muslims believe Allah has decreed everything that will happen. Muslims testify to Allah’s sovereignty with their frequent phrase, inshallah, meaning, “if God wills.”
The Five Pillars of Islam
These five tenets compose the framework of obedience for Muslims:
1. The testimony of faith (shahada): “la ilaha illa allah. Muhammad rasul Allah.” This means, “There is no deity but Allah. Muhammad is the messenger of Allah.” A person can convert to Islam by stating this creed. The shahada shows that a Muslim believes in Allah alone as deity and believes that Muhammad reveals Allah.
2. Prayer (salat): Five ritual prayers must be performed every day.
3. Giving (zakat): This almsgiving is a certain percentage given once a year.
4. Fasting (sawm): Muslims fast during Ramadan in the ninth month of the Islamic calendar. They must not eat or drink from dawn until sunset.
5. Pilgrimage (hajj): If physically and financially possible, a Muslim must make the pilgrimage to Mecca in Saudi Arabia at least once. The hajj is performed in the twelfth month of the Islamic calendar.
An Evaluation of Islam
Compared to Christianity, Islam has some similarities but significant differences. Like Christianity, Islam is monotheistic. However, Muslims reject the Trinity—that God has revealed Himself as one in three Persons: the Father, Son, and Holy Spirit.
Muslims claim that Jesus was one of the most important prophets—not God’s Son. Islam asserts that Jesus, though born of a virgin, was created like Adam. Muslims do not believe Jesus died on the cross. They do not understand why Allah would allow His prophet Isa (the Islamic word for "Jesus") to die a torturous death. Yet the Bible shows how the death of the perfect Son of God was essential to pay for the sins of believers (Isaiah 53:5-6; John 3:16; 14:6; 1 Peter 2:24).
Islam teaches that the Qur'an is the final authority and the last revelation of Allah. The Bible, however, was completed in the first century with the Book of Revelation. The Bible warns against anyone adding to or subtracting from God’s Word (Deuteronomy 4:2; Proverbs 30:6; Galatians 1:6-12; Revelation 22:18). The Qur’an, as a claimed addition to God’s Word, directly disobeys God’s command.
it will followed later by more information
Thank you very much for the great information sister.
I also found this research which has more details
What is Islam?
By: Dr. Shaikh Reza Shariati
The Holy Qur’an briefly stipulates the truth: “ The Religion before Allah is Islam.”
[صورة] أن الدين عند الله الإسلام [صورة]
( آل عمران - 85)
Arabic word “Islam” literally means “Surrender” or “Submission”. As the way of life , it is understood to mean: “pure surrender or joyful submission but to Allah’s Wills and Plans. Islam originating from the divine Revelation, is the most perfect system of the true beliefs , right affections and exact practices. It is the best way of life based on the servant’s ultimate relation to the Creation and the Lord and faith in a divinely ruled order of this world and the Hereafter, agreement with which is the means of salvation for the God’s family (mankind) and thus for each individual who has a role in it. All Nature adores Allah , and Islam asks for nothing peculiar or sectarian; it but asks that we follow our nature and make our will conformable to Allah’s Will as seen in Nature, History and Revelation.
So set thou thy face truly to the religion being upright, the nature in which Allah has made mankind: No change (there is) in the work (wrought) by Allah: That is the true Religion: But most among mankind know not.”
[صورة] فأقم وجهك للدين حنيفا فطرت الله التي فطر الناس عليها لا تبديل لخلق الله ذلك الدين القيم و لكن اكثر الناس لا يعلمون [صورة]
( الأنعام- 153)
Allah the Beneficent says: ”The same religion has He establish for you as that which He enjoined on Noah- The which We have sent by inspiration to thee - and that which We enjoined on Abraham, Moses , and Jesus: namely, that ye should remain steadfast in Religion, and make no divisions therein.“ Allah’s Religion is the same in essence, whether given, for example, to Noah , Abraham , Moses , or Jesus or to our Holy Prophet. The source of unity is the revelation from Allah. In Islam it is “established” as an institution, and does not remain merely a vague suggestion.
[صورة] شرع لكم ما وصي به نوحا والذي أوحينا إليك و ما وصينا به إبراهيم و موسى و عيسي أن أقيموا الدين و لا تتفرقوا فيه كبر علي المشركين ما تدعوهم إليه الله يجتبي إليه من يشاء و يهدي من إليه ينيب [صورة]
(النحل - 89)
“Nothing have We omitted from the Book”
[صورة] ما فرطنا في الكتاب من شيء [صورة]
(المائدة - 3)
"Verily this Qur’an doth guide to that which is most right”
[صورة] إن هذا القرآن يهدي للتي هي أقوم [صورة]
(طه - 50)
We are proud to serve “our Lord”. He is the universal Lord and Cherisher, the One and Only God, who has created all beings and all things. It is from Him that each created thing derived its form and nature , including such free-will and power as man has got. Allah possesses all attributes of perfection. He does not do any thing against wisdom and any injustice to any one. Any evil and tyrant action or operation in the human societies can not be justified under the Holy Name of Allah. The Holy Qur'an states: “He is Allah , the Creator , the Originator, the Fashioner, to Him belong the Most Beautiful Names”
[صورة] هو الله الخالق البارئ المصور له الأسماء الحسني [صورة]
(الحديد - 25)
The Book, the Balance , and Iron stand as emblems of three things which hold society together, Revelation, which commands Good and forbids Evil; Justice, which gives to each person his due; and the strong arm of the Law, which maintains sanctions for evil-doers.
History indicates that there were prophets among people who responded to the call of Allah. Every community had a messenger. The Almighty states:” And every people had a Messenger.,,
[صورة] ولكل أمة رسول فإذا جاء رسولهم قضي بينهم بالقسط و هم لايظلمون [صورة]
(الرعد - 7)
[صورة] وما أرسلناك إلا كافة للناس [صورة]
(الأحزاب - 40)
His book , The Holy Qur'an is the collection of the revelations which God made to him. It contains the Words of God and is often referred to as the Speech of Allah. Consequently, Islam will remain valid and everlasting until the day of judgment. The Almighty says:” Nor does he say (aught) of (his own) desire. It is no less than inspiration sent down to him“ and “ We have, without doubt, sent down the Message and We will assuredly guard it( from corruption).
[صورة] ما ينطق عن الهوى إن هو إلا وحي يوحي [صورة]
(الحجر - 9)
Meanwhile , Allah ,The Most High , appointed twelve distinguished personalities , one after the other as the rightful successors of the Holy Prophet of Islam(SA). They are the descendants of both the Prophet and Ali Ibn Abi Talib. Allah says:” “
“O ye who believe! Obey Allah , and obey the Messenger, and those charged with authority among you (Imams = divinely ordained leaders). If ye differ in anything among yourselves, refer it to Allah and His Messenger , If ye do believe in Allah and the Last Day: that is best , and most suitable for final determination.”
[صورة] يا أيها الذين أمنوا أطيعوا الله و أطيعوا الرسول و أولي الأمر منكم فان تنازعتم في شيء فردوه إلى الله والرسول إن كنتم تؤمنون بالله واليوم الأخر ذلك خير و احسن تأويلا [صورة]
(الأحزاب - 33)
Their presence in the world is crucial for its continued existence. “If the earth was only a moment empty of Hojjat (Imam), it would swallow its residents.”
لوخلت الأرض طرفة عين من حجة لساخت بأهلها ( بحارالانوار ج23 ص 29)
The Mahdi is the last Imam. He will appear to inaugurate a long period in which the world will be filled with justice and righteousness. The Prophet of Islam (S.A.S) says:
المهدي الذي يملاها قسطا و عدلا كما ملئت جورا و ظلما (فرائد السمطين ( ج2 ص 312)
Imam Al-Sadeq Ja’far Ibn Muhammad (AS) says:”
إذا قام القائم عليه السلام حكم بالعدل و ارتفع في أيامه الجور و أمنت السبل و أخرجت الأرض بركاتها و رد كل حق إلى أهله و لم يبق أهل دين حتى يظهروا الإسلام و يعترفوا بالإيمان (كشف الغمة - ج3 ص 255)
Our life is not interrupted by the death of the body. The Almighty says:
“ Before them is a Partition till the Day they are raised up.”
[صورة] و من ورائهم برزخ إلى يوم يبعثون [صورة]
( الروم - 19)
From dead matter Allah’s creative act produces life and living matter , and even science has not yet been able to explain the mystery of life. Life and living matter again seem to reach maturity and again die, as we see every day. No material thing seems to have perpetual life. But again we see the creative process of Allah constantly at work , and the cycle of life and death seems to go on. The earth itself , seemingly so inert, produces vegetable life at once from a single shower of rain , and in various ways sustains animal life. Normally it seems to die in the winter in northern climates, and in a drought everywhere , and the spring revives it in all its glory. Metaphorically many movements, institutions, organizations, seem to die and then to live again, all under the wonderful dispensation of Allah. So will our personality be revived when we die on this earth , in order to reap the fruit of this our probationary life.
“ Is not He Who created the heavens and the earth able to create the like thereof ? Yea, indeed ! For He is the Creator Supreme, of skill and knowledge(infinite)!
[صورة] أو ليس الذي خلق السموات و الأرض بقادر علي أن يخلق مثلهم بلي و هو الخلاق العليم [صورة]
( الجن - 2-1 )
Both the Qur’an and the Hadith describe the Jinn as a definite species of living beings. They are created out of fire and like man , may believe or disbelieve , accept or reject guidance. The authoritative Islamic texts show that they are not merely a hidden force, or spirit. They are personalized beings who enjoy a certain amount of free will and thus will be called to account. The Almighty Allah says: “ I have only created Jinns and men, that they may serve Me.”
[صورة] وما خلقت الجن و الانس الا ليعبدون [صورة]
((المجادلة - 22)
If any one believes in Allah and His goodness and justice , and in the Hereafter , in which all true values will be restored he will never love evil or wrong - doing or rebellion against Allah, even if these things are found in his nearest kith and kin.
Islam considers all of the particles of the Universe to be the creatures of one Creator , all of the human beings in any point of the Universe and History to be the servants of One God , the children of one pair of parents , and confronted by a common enemy , the Devil and his army. Based on the innate sense of truth , justice , love and Beauty , Islam has been trying to establish , cooperating with all of the sane members of mankind , an universal society without any satanic internal and external boundaries. No man whether brown , black , red , white or yellow has any superiority over an other man because of his color , rank , or riches . Before Allah they are all one and he gets most honor who is most righteous. Islam disagrees with the limited , closed and classified societies in the form of some dispersed nations and hostile governments. It invites and exhorts the people of the world to become unified again and to constitute an universal family following the Truth. The formation of an universal family and the enforcement of the Brotherhood is the greatest social ideal of Islam. On it was based the Prophet’s Sermon at his last Pilgrimage , and Islam can not be completely realized until this ideal is achieved. Islam is the nearest way of conducting the members of the human family to the plain truth and justice and love criteria and to the permanent happiness. We have to help each other in righteousness and piety , not in perpetuating feuds of hatred and enmity. We may have to fight and put down evil , but never in a spirit of malice or hatred , but always in spirit of Justice and righteousness.
Five duties have traditionally been seen as obligatory for all Muslims , although many Muslims observe them only partially. These duties are the so-called five pillars of Islam :”Prayer at the prescribed times each day (salat), paying a prescribed amount out of one’s wealth as alms for the poor and some other categories(Zakat), Pilgrimage to Mecca , and the performance of certain prescribed rituals in and around Mecca(Hajj) at a specified time of the year (Dhul-Hijja), Fasting during the month of Ramazan (Sawm) and joyful and complete acceptance of the Divine Authority of the Imams , the Prophet’s Progeny (Velaiat). The last pillar is the most important one. Imam Muhammad al-Baqer (AS) confirms this fact:
بني الإسلام علي خمس : أقام الصلاة و إيتاء الزكاة وحج البيت و صوم شهر رمضان والولاية لنا أهل البيت فجعل في أربع منها رخصة و لم يجعل في الولاية رخصة . من لم يكن له مال لم يكن عليه الزكاة و من لم يكن عنده مال فليس عليه حج و من كان مريضا صلي قاعدا و افطر شهر رمضان و الولاية صحيحا كان أو مريضا أو ذا مال أو لا مال فهي لازمة (واجبة) (الخصال للصدوق )
Although the essence of Islam is acceptance of the One God and of the Prophetood of Muhammed , in practice , adherence to Islam has traditionally been manifested by living a life according to Islamic Law. The Islamic law is regarded as of divine origin. To obey the law is to obey God. Islam has been more a matter of right behavior than of concern with the niceties of belief. Islamic law concerns itself with far wider areas of public and private life than does a modern secular legal system. Economics , politics , warfare , matters of beauty , diet and dress , and many other aspects of social and private life are regulated by Islamic law. Although Islam is not a legalistic religion , to live a life according to the law has been the main religious ideal for most Muslims.
The Perspective of Islam
1. Beliefs :
Belief in Creator , Divine Justice , The Prophets , Leadership of mankind , Resurrection
2. Worship : Taharat , Salat , Qura’n , Dua , Zekr , Sawm , E’tikaf , Zakat , Khums , Hajj & ‘U mrah , Jahad , Amr belma’roof & Nahi anelmonkar , Tavalli , Tabarri .
3. Transactions :
• Contracts : Tejarat , Shofeh , Ejareh , Mozarea’t , Mosaqat , Sabq and Remaieh , Sherkat , Modharebat , Vadiat , Ariat , Dein and Qarz , Rahn , Dheman , Havalat , Kefalat , Solh , Vekalat , Hebat , Nekah
• Iqa’a’t : Talaq and Edad , Joalat , Eqrar , Vasiiat , Vaqf , Habs , Sokna , Umra , Roqba , Sadaqat , Zehar , Ila’a , Lean , Etq , Tadbir , Ketabat , Ayman and Nodhur , Ebra’a.
• Ahkam : Masajed , Loqatah , Qasb , Ehia’a almavat , Moshtarakat , Hajr , Kaffarat , Seid & Zebahat , At’emeh , Ashrebeh , Malabes , Mirath , Qaza’a , Shahadat , Bayyenat & Ayman , Jenayat Hodud , Ta’azirat , Qesas , Diat
4. Morals :
• Reason’s army : Kheir , Tasdiq , Adl , Shokr , Tavakkol , Rahmat , Fahm , Zohd , Rahbat , Taodat , Somt , Taslim , Safh , Tafakkor , Ta’attof , Movasat , Vafa’a , Khodhu’ , Hobb , Haq , Ekhlas , Fetnat , Modarat , Ketman , Sawm , Hajj , Berr olvaledain , Ma’roof , Taqiat , Tahiat , Haia’ , Rahat , Barekat , Qevam , Veqar , Tobeh , Mohafazat , Nashat , Olfat , Iman , Raja’a , Reza’a , Tama’ , Ra’ fat , Ilm , Iffat , Refq , Tavadhu’ , Helm , Estelam , Sabr , Qena’ , Hefz , Qonu’ , Mavadat , Ta’at , Salamat , Sedq , Amanat , Shahamat , Ma’refat , Salamat alqalb , Salat , Jahad , Sawn olhadith , Haqiqat , Setr , Ensaf , Nezafat , Qasd , Sohulat , Afiat , Hekmat , Sa,adat , Esteqfar , Dua , Farah , Sakhavat. Ignorance army : Sharr , Johud , Jowr , Kofran , Hers , Qadhab , Homq , Raqbat , Jor’at , Sor’at , Hazer , Shakk , Enteqam , Sahv , qati’at , Momaneat , Qadr , Tatavol , Boqz , Batel , Showb , Qabavat , Mokashefat , Efsha’ , Eftar , Nabz olmithaq , Oquq olvaledain , Monkar , Edha’at , Baqy , Khal’ , Ta’ab , Mahq , Mokatharat , Kheffat , Esrar , Tahavon , Kasel , Efteraq , Kofr , Qonut , Sakhat , Ya’s , qasavat , Jahl , Tahattok , Kherq , Takabbor , Safahat , Estekbar , Jaza’ , Faqr , Nesyan , Hers , Adavat , Ma’siat , Bala’ , Kezb , Khianat , Baladat , Enkar , Momakarat , Eza,at , Nokul , Namimat , Reia’ , Tabarroj , Hamiyat , Qazer , Odvan , Saubat , Bala’ , Hava’ , Shaqavat , Eqterar , Estenkaf , Hozn , Bokhl.
5. Etiquette :
Sleeping , Alimentation , Physical Exercises , Purification , Beauty , Sex , Hygene , Medicine , Public Relations , Housing , Sobriety , etc.
thanks for all this information
inshallah all your dreams come true
i am search now for more information about this great religion :t4409:
Who Is the Prophet Muhammad ?
Muhammad was born in Makkah in the year 570. Since his father died before his birth and his mother died shortly thereafter, he was raised by his uncle who was from the respected tribe of Quraysh. He was raised illiterate, unable to read or write, and remained so till his death. His people, before his mission as a prophet, were ignorant of science and most of them were illiterate. As he grew up, he became known to be truthful, honest, trustworthy, generous, and sincere. He was so trustworthy that they called him the Trustworthy.1 Muhammad was very religious, and he
had long detested the decadence and idolatry of his society.
At the age of forty, Muhammad received his first revelation from God through the Angel Gabriel. The revelations continued for twenty-three years, and they are collectively known as the Quran.
As soon as he began to recite the Quran and to preach the truth which God had revealed to him, he and his small group of followers suffered persecution from unbelievers. The persecution grew so fierce that in the year 622 God gave them the command to emigrate. This emigration from Makkah to the city of Madinah, some 260 miles to the north, marks the beginning of the Muslim calendar.
After several years, Muhammad and his followers were able to return to Makkah, where they forgave their enemies. Before Muhammad died, at the age of sixty-three, the greater part of the Arabian Peninsula had become Muslim, and within a century of his death, Islam had spread to Spain in the West and as far East as China. Among the reasons for the rapid and peaceful spread of Islam was the truth and clarity of its doctrine. Islam calls for faith in only one God, Who is the only one worthy of worship.
The Prophet Muhammad was a perfect example of an honest, just, merciful, compassionate, truthful, and brave human being. Though he was a man, he was far removed from all evil characteristics and strove solely for the sake of God and His reward in the Hereafter. Moreover, in all his actions and dealings, he was ever mindful and fearful of God.
The fact that the Islamic religion is a religion of peace and brotherhood, love and tolerance approach is not blood and genocide, terror and sabotage overwhelmingly oppressive deviant groups such as ISIS and al-Qaeda. The phenomenon of terrorism and the emergence of expiatory groups are the agendas of economic and grandmother America and its allies to steal oil poor countries this what Russian President discovered when he beat up trucks Turkish They are stealing oil from Iraq and Syria, it is the duty of the media Islamic legally and ethically to work together in order to show the truths of religion and the Islamic Holy Quran and biography Prophet Muhammad through the use of modern communication tools in the contemporary world and to expose twisted policies of the West and that double standards and into consideration hate for the Islamic religion
thanks a lot uncle for this addition
when i wrote this topic
i thought to tell the people around the world
what is Islam
and ISIS they are not muslims
WHO IS ALI IBN ABI TALIB؟
Imam Ali (A): A leader whom the World is crying for
In the present world which is full of injustice, political tension, clash between cultures and religions, and exploitation of assets - the World's population is crying for strong, merciful and just leadership. A fundamental philosophical question to ask is:
Can a man yearn for something which according to some is impossible to attain - i.e. is it impossible to hope for a leader with perfect qualities?
To answer this question we must ask ourselves if history ever has seen leadership with perfect qualities?
The following examples from history demonstrate qualities of the ultimate leader - Amir al Momineen, Imam Ali ibn Abu Talib (as):
A Leader for all Humans
In his famous letter to Malik al-Ashtar upon him taking governance over Egypt, Imam Ali (A) writes:
"Remember, Malik, that amongst your subjects there are two kinds of people: those who have the same religion as you have; they are brothers to you, and those who have religions other than that of yours, they are human beings like you. Men of either category suffer from the same weaknesses and disabilities that human beings are inclined to, they commit sins, indulge in vices either intentionally or foolishly and unintentionally without realizing the enormity of their deeds. Let your mercy and compassion come to their rescue and help in the same way and to the same extent that you expect Allah to show mercy and forgiveness to you. You must always appreciate and adopt a policy which is neither too severe nor too lenient; a policy which is based upon equity will be largely appreciated."
If all Leaders would try to show the same mercy and recognise weaknesses of humans like Imam Ali (A) the world would be a better place to live in.
A Leader who chooses the Best Team
When appointing people who would represent the Islamic Government, Imam Ali (A) was always uncompromising to his just ideals. He would also cascade the same examples to his representatives to follow, which can be read in another part of the Imam Ali's (A) letter to Malik al-Ashtar:
"Your worst ministers will be the men who had been ministers to the despotic rulers before you and who had been a party to atrocities committed by them. Such persons should not be taken into your confidence and should not be trusted because they have aided sinners and have assisted tyrants and cruel rulers. In their stead you can comfortably find persons who are equally wise and learned but who have not developed sinful and criminal mentalities, who have neither helped the tyrants in their tyrannies nor have they assisted them to carry on their sinful deeds.
Such persons will prove the least troublesome to you. They will be the most helpful. They will sincerely sympathise with you. If you take them in your confidence they will sever their connections with your opponents. Keep such people with you as your companions in your informal company as well as in official gatherings in audience..."
If Leaders would set-up governance and partners in the fashion Imam Ali (A) recommended, and indeed implemented, corruption in leadership would quickly diminish.
A Leader with the greatest socio-political and socio-economical insight
In an era (7th Century!) more than 1000 years before the arrival of the renaissance and even before the primitive Feudalistic system had been established in Europe and Asia, Imam Ali (A) describes the structures of how a society works to Malik al-Ashtar:
"You must know, Malik, that the people over whom you rule are divided into classes and grades and the prosperity and welfare of each class of the society individually and collectively are so interdependent upon the well-being of the other classes that the whole set-up represents a closely woven net and reciprocal aspect. One class cannot exist peacefully, cannot live happily and cannot work without the support and good wishes of the other."
Many of the leaders and governments in this day and age depend on hoarding and storing commodities and monies, with the strategy of making gains for oneself or for a limited part of society, however Imam Ali (A) never agreed to this conduct.
Difference between shia-shiite-shea and sunni-suna
Shia and Sunni are terms for the two largest groups of Muslims. The points of convergence between these groups are a lot more than what they differ in, what is important here is that the points of differences cannot be understood without returning to the reason or the Islamic thought that the Shiite school is based on in comparison to the other schools.
The Great Martyr Al Sadr explains in his book ''The Emergence of Shiism and the Shiites'' speaking about the genesis of the two main currents during the Prophets (s.a.w) lifetime:
''The two chief tendencies closely associated, from the start, with the emergence of the Islamic Ummah during the Prophets lifetime are:
One: The current representing a belief in the devotional acts of religion, it's arbitral power and the unconditional acceptance of religious stipulations for every aspect of life. (This is the tendency of the school of those who upheld the rights of the Prophetic Household and Shiism.)
Two: The current, which sees religious faith as eliciting devotional deeds within the special scope of overt acts of worship only. It believes in the possibility of independent legal judgment (ijtihad) and free discretion for the amendment and improvement of religious stipulations according to benefits (masalih), which might accrue in other domains of life (This is the tendency of the Sunni Schools.)
These two currents were both reflected and manifested when the Prophetic tradition granting the leadership to Ali Ibn abi Talib was confronted, one strived in opposition to the tradition while the other stood with the tradition.
From then the school of obeying the tradition by following Ali was born. He then goes on to explain: ''The two currents, whose rivalry began in earnest during the Prophets (s.a.w) own lifetime, were reflected in the Muslims position regarding the thesis of the Imams' pre-eminence in the mission after the Prophet (s.a.w).
Those representing the devotional tendency (as opposed to the one for independent legal judgment) found in the Prophets (s.a.w) stipulation the reason for accepting the doctrine without hesitation or adjustment.
The advocacy of independent legal judgement was viewed as offering the possibility of reason from the pattern established by the Prophet (saw) whenever judgement imagined to be more harmonious with the circumstances was called for. By the same token one observes that Shiites arose immediately after the Prophet's (s.a.w) death, representing the Muslims who adhered in practice to the doctrine of the Imams'
pre-eminence and leadership, the first steps of whose implementation the Prophet (s.a.w) had declared obligatory right after his departure. The Shiite current embodied from the first a repudiation of the Saqifah Council's attempt to paralyse the doctrine for Imam Ali's pre-eminence and to transfer authority to someone else.
("The emergence of Shiism and the Shiites." by Shaheed Al-Sadr.)
Shaheed Al-Sadr believes that the Muslims did not follow the leadership of Imam Ali and the reason for this goes back to their way of thinking.
On these bases the Shiite viewed the position of Imamate from a special perspective emerging from the importance of leadership and that the Imam is the true caliph of the Prophet (s.a.w) on earth.
Therefore the Imam had to be of impeccable character & outstanding qualities enabling him to occupy the position of leadership.
Like infallibility, endowed knowledge and complete understanding of the existence man and the divine law. Thus the Imam (as) is a reflection of the Prophet (s.a.w) in all his qualities except the connection with revelation.
"You are to me in status as Haroon (as) was to Musa (as) except that there is no Prophet after me." (Prophetic tradition)
This is the basic difference between Shiite and Sunni, that the Shiite understand the position of leadership to be absolute and not relevant, that it could be through the allegiance of the Ummah or its consensus on a specific person as is the view of Scholars of the Ahle-Sunnat.
Therefore we find that the primary and secondary aspects, which both schools have practiced according to the dictates of the Prophet (saw) like prayer, fasting, pilgrimage, other acts of worship and transactions in their general forms have not been subject to differences.
Differences however occurred in certain analytical deductions thus on one hand for example the Shiite differ with the Hanabila but concur with the Shawafi in a specific issue. Similarly the Shawafi will concur with Hanabila based on proof, likewise with the other schools (Maliki and Hanafi). We find on the other hand they (the Shiite) concur and do not differ with the other Sunni Schools in most issues. For further information on this topic you may refer to ("Figh according to the Five Schools") Sheikh Jawad Mughniyya.
The same applies to the theological aspects, we find that the general principles that makes a person a Muslim or a Kaafir viz. Unity of Allah, Prophet-hood and Resurrection are agreed upon, but difference in Imamate which the Shiite consider to be of the fundamentals whereas the Sunni's don't.
On the issue of Justice we do not find the difference based on Sunni or Shiite but rather it is between the School of Adliyat (proponents for) and the School of Asha'irat (those against).
The Mu'tazila for example are part of the Sunni School but are proponents for the concept of Divine Justice. The issue of Justice is dealt with in theological discourses.
Like the issue of Good and Evil being of the intellect or not.
Similarly you find that the Shiite concur with the Asha'ira in some theological issues and differ with the Mu'tazila, thus the issue was not viewed on the basis of
Jurisprudence but studied according to intellectual and legal means
Outline of Differences Between
Shi'ite and Sunnit Schools of Thought
There is no difference of opinion amongst Muslim schools that the religion
of Allah is Islam; that the only way to know Islam is through the Book of
Allah and the Sunnah of the Holy Prophet; and that the Book of Allah is
what is known as the Quran, without any "addition" or "deletion". The
difference is in the interpretation of some of the verses of the Quran; and
in believing or not beliving some of the sunnah as genuine; or in its
interpretation. This difference of approach has led towards the difference
in some basic principles and some laws of religion. As the basic
principles of Islam are well known, I do not think it is necessary to
enumerate all the beliefs. It will be sufficient if some of the important
differences are described here to give the readers a fairly comprehensive
idea of the main characteristics which distinguish the Shiats from the
All the Muslims argee that Allah is one, Muhammad (PBUH&HF) is His last
prophet, and that one day Allah will resurrect all the human beings, and
all will be questioned about their beliefs and actions. All of them agree
that anyone who does not believe in any of the above three basic principles
is not a Muslim. Also, they agree that anybody denying the famous tenets of
Islam, like salat (prayers), sawm (fasting), hajj (pilgrimage to Mecca),
zakat (religious tax), etc., or believing that the famous sins, like
drinkig wine, adultery, stealing, gambling, lie, murder, etc., are not
sins, is not a Muslim, though he might have been believing in Allah and His
Prophet Muhammad (PBUH&HF). That is because to deny such things is like to
deny the prophethood of Muhammad and his shariah (Divine Laws).
When we go further, we come across those subjects which are not agreed
amongst Muslims, and the differences between different schools of Islam
begin there. Many people think that the difference between Shia and Sunni
is the issue of leadership after the death of prophet. This is true, but as
a matter of fact, different leaders instruct different ways of approach to
each issue. This may result to more differences as the the time goes. I try
to briefly explain these basic differences here.
PERSON OF GOD
Some Sunni scholars hold beliefs which would imply that Allah has body, but
not like the bodies that we know, of course. There are quite a number of
traditions in Sahih al-Bukhari describing that God has a sign in his leg,
and he put his leg over the hell and so on. For instance see Sahih al-
Bukhari, Arabic-Englich version, 9.532s in which alleges Allah has a sign
in His Shin (leg) and when He uncovers His Shin (leg) people will recognize
Him. Or in the same volume see Tradition 9.604 and 9.510 where it is said
that Allah has fingers! Please also see the consequetive articles given by
Kaamran refrenced to Sahih al-Bukhari and Sahih Muslim.
Wahhabis who follow Ibn Taymiyyah (d. 728/1328) confirm that the organs of
God is physical entity and Allah is firmly seated in the trone. However
Ash'arites (followers of Abul-Hasan al-Ash'ari) which include a vast amount
of Sunnis, do NOT interpret face, hand, and leg as physical organs. They
believe that Allah has face, hand, and leg, but they say: "We do not know
The Shia firmly believe that Allah has NOT got a body, nor face, nor hands,
nor fingers, nor legs. Shaykh Saduq, one of the most distinguished of Shia
"Verily, Allah is One, Unique, nothing is like Him, He is Eternal;
Hearing, Seeing, Omniscient, Living, Omnipotent, above every need. He
cannot be described in terms of substance, nor body, nor form, nor
accident, nor line, nor surface, nor heaviness, nor lightness, nor
color, nor movement, nor rest, nor time, nor space. He is above all
the descriptions which can be applied to His creatures. He is away
from both extremes: Neither He is just a non-entity (as atheists and
in a lesser degree Mutazilites implied), nor He is just like other
things. He is Existent, not like other existing things."
Shi'i reference: Shi'ite Creed (al-Itqadat al-Imamiyyah), by Shaykh Saduq
Of course, there are some verses in Quran which ascribe the words used for
limbs to the person of God. But according to the interpretation of Shi'ite
Imams, they are used in metaphorical and symbolic sense, not literal sense.
for example, the verse (28:88) of Quran which says: "Every thing is mortal
except His face" means 'except His person'. Surely, even Sunni scholars can
not say that only the face of God will remain, while His other so-called
limbs (either physical or not) will die! Similarly, Allah has used
the word 'Hand' (Yad) in several places in the Quran. But it means His
power and His Mercy, as in the verse (5:64): "But His hands are outspread".
In fact in the Quran and the Prophetic such mytaphorical meanings were
greatly used. For example, Allah describes his Prophets as :
"men of Hands and vision." (38:45)
Even all Sunni scholars agreed that here 'hands' means power and strength.
I should mention that the view of Shia is also different than Mu'tazalites
who take God to the boundary of non-existence.
CAN ALLAH BE SEEN?
As a direct result of the above-mentioned difference, Sunni scholars
believe that Allah can be seen. Some of them, like Imam Ahmad Ibn Hanbal,
say that He can be seen in this world, as well as in the word after. Others
say that He can only be seen in the hereafter. (Reference: Sahih al-
Bukhari, Arabic-English version, Traditions 9.530-532 which clearly
state that God can be seen, and God changes His look to be recognized by
On the other hand, Shiats say that He cannot be seen physically anywhere,
because He has no body, and because Allah says in the Quran:
"Sight cannot reach Him" (6:103).
Sunni scholars use the following verse as their proof:
"Some faces on that day (day of judgement) will be fresh (blooming),
looking towards their Lord" (75:22-23).
But in Arabic language the word "nazar" (looking toward) does NOT imply
"seeing". Often it is said: "nazartu ilal-hilal falam arahu" which means
"I looked towards the new moon (crescent) but I did not see it." Therefore,
the verse does not imply that they will see God. According to the Shi'ite
interpretstion, the verse means that they will be looking forward to the
blessing of Allah.
ATTRIBUTES OF ALLAH
According to the Shia belief, attributes of Allah can be put in two
distinct groups: first those attributes which denote His person, and
second, those attributes which denote His actions. Shaykh Saduq says:
"For example, we say that Allah was from ever Hearing, Seeing,
Omniscient, Wise, Omnipotent, Having power, Living, Self-existent, One
and Eternal. And these are His personal attributes. and we do not say
that He was from ever Creating, Doing, Intending, pleased, displeased,
Giving sustenance, Speaking; because these virtues describe His
actions; and they are not eternal; it is not allowed to say that Allah
was doing all these actions from eternity. The reason for this
distinction is obvious. Actions need an object. For example, if we say
that Allah was giving sustenance from ever, then we will have to admit
the existence of sustained thing from ever. In other words, we will
have to admit that the world was from ever. but it is against our
belief that nothing except God is Eternal."
Shi'i reference: Shi'ite Creed (al-Itqadat al-Imamiyyah), by Shaykh Saduq
It appears that the Sunni scholars have no clear view of this distinction,
and they say that all His attributes are Eternal. This is the actual cause
of their belief that Quran, being the Kalam (speech) of God, is Eternal,
and not created. Because they say that He was mutakallim (speaking) from
"Hanbalites" so far said that 'Not only were the words and sounds of the
Quran eternal, so that even its recital was uncreated, but its parchment
and binding shared the same qualities. In the Testament of Abu Hanifa
a more moderate view is expressed: We confess that the Quran is the speech
of Allah, uncreated, His inspiration, and revelation, not He, yet not other
than He, but His real quality, written in the copies, recited by the
tongues. The ink, the paper, the writing are created, for they are the work
of man" (Revelation and Reason in Islam by A.J. Arberry, pp 26-27).
But since Shia distinguish between His personal virtues and His actions,
"Our belief about the Quran is that it is the speech of God, and His
revelation sent by Him, and His word and His book... And that Allah is
its Creator and its Sender and its Guardian..."
Shi'i reference: Shi'ite Creed (al-Itqadat al-Imamiyyah), by Shaykh Saduq
Among the Sunnis, the bitter quarrel between the Mutazilites and the
Asharites on this subject is well-known, and there is no need to release
Some claim that every created things has flaws in it and thus Quran should
be ethernal since it is without flaw. This argument is baseless since we
Muslims believe that angels, though created, are flawless, otherwise how
can we trust Gabriel when he brought Quran to the Prophet? How can you
trust Prophet himself? Is Allah unable to create a flawless creature? As
such, we believe that Quran as well as all other things in the universe are
all created. Nothing is eternal except Allah. There is a tradition from the
Prophet (PBUH&HF) which states that:
"(There was a time when) Allah existed, and there was nothing beside
PLACE OF REASON IN RELIGION
This is one of the most important distinction between the Sunnis on one
side, and Shi'ites on another. To be more exact, I should have used the
word Asharites, in place of Sunnis since a vast number of Sunnis nowadays
are Asharites; Mutazilites have become extinct a long time ago, though
some of the great scholars of the recent time like Justice Amir Ali were
Anyhow, the Shiats say that irrespective of religious commandments, there
is real merit or demerit in different courses of actions, and it is because
a certain thing is good that God orders it, and because the other is bad
that He forbids it. Sunni scholars deny this conception. They say that
nothing is good or evil in itself. Only what God has commanded us is good
and what He has forbidden us is evil. If something is forbidden by God it
is bad; then if God cancels the first order, and allows it, it will become
good, after being bad. In other words, the Shiats say that God has
forbidden us to tell lie because it is bad; the Sunnis say that lie has
become bad because God has forbidden it. Shiats recognize the relation of
cause and effect. Sunni sholars deny it. They say that there is no cause
except Allah. And it is just a habit of Allah that whenever, for example,
we drink water He quenches our thirst.
Based upon the above difference of attitude about the position of reason in
religion are the following differences: Shiats say that God never acts
without purpose or aimlessly. All His actions are based on wisdom and
intelligent purpose (e.g., Because it is not commendable, rationally, to
act without purpose). The Sunni scholars on the other hand, because of
their denouncement of rational merit or demerit, say that it is quite
possible for God to act aimlessly. It follows that, according to the
Shiats, God does nothing which has inherent demerit in it. The Sunnis deny
it. Shiats say that all actions of Allah are intended for the benefit of
His creatures. Because He Himself has no need; and if His actions become
devoid of benefits for His creation also, they will become aimless, which
is rationally not commendable. The Sunnis deny it, because of their stand
about rational merit or demerit.
GRACE (Lutf or Tafaddul)
Based on the above differences, there is a difference about their attitude
towards the Grace of Allah. Shiats say that the Grace is morally, incumbent
upon Allah. They say Grace is the actions of God which would help to bring
His creatures closer to His devotion and obedience and facilitate their
moral correction (which is) morally incumbent on Him. Allah has commanded
us to be just, while He Himself treats us with something better, namely
Grace (tafaddul). The Sunni scholars, on the other hand, say:
"God leades astray whom He wills and guides to right path whom He
wills, and it is not incumbent upon God, the Most High, to do
something that may be best for the creature."
Sunni reference: Creed of an-Nasafi
Based upon Shia position on Justice and Grace, they say that:
"Whatever God has promised as reward for a good work, He will fulfill
it; but whatever He has threatened as punishment for a bad work, it is
upon His decision. If He enforces the punishment, it will be according
to His Justice; but if He forgives it, it will be according to His
Shi'i reference: Shi'ite Creed (al-Itqadat al-Imamiyyah), by Shaykh Saduq
Shia is confronted both by the Kharijites and Mutazilites on one side and
the Asharites on other side. The Mutazilites and Kharijites say that it is
incumbent upon God to fulfill His threats also. He has no power to forgive.
The Asharites, on the other hand say that it is not incumbent upon Him even
to fulfill His promises of rewards. They go so far as to say, "Even if
Allah wants to send the prophets in Hell, and Satan to Paradise, it is not
against virtue, because there is no inherent demerit in any action."
WHY BELIEVE IN GOD
The Shiats say: Man is obliged by his reason to know God, and to obey His
commands. In other words, necessity of religion is proved, first of all, by
reason. Sunni scholars say it is necessary to believe in Allah, but not on
the account of reason. It is necessary because Allah has ordered us to know
Him. According to the Shi'ite point of view, this type of proof creates
vicious circle. Believe in God. why? Because God has ordered it. But we do
not know who God is. Why should we obey Him?
LIMIT OF LAW
The Shiats say: God cannot give us a command beyond our strength, because
it is wrong rationally (La Yokalleffollaho nafsan illa vosaaha). Some Sunni
scholars do not agree with it.
OUR ACTIONS: TAQDIR
Are our actions really ours? Or we are just a tool in the hands of Allah!
Shia scholars say:
"Taqdir means that, Allah possesses foreknowledge of human action, but
He does not compel anybody to act in any particular way"
Shi'i reference: Shi'ite Creed (al-Itqadat al-Imamiyyah), by Shaykh Saduq
The above quote gives evidence to the fact that according to Shia, human
has option either to obey God's rules, or disobey. To make it clear, it
should be explained here, that man's conditions or actions are of two kinds
(i) Those actions about which he can be advised, ordered, praised or
blamed. Such actions are within his power and are dependent upon his
(ii) Such conditions about which he cannot be praised or blamed, like life,
death, etc. Such conditions are outside of his sphere of will or
For example, we can advise a patient to consult this or that doctor and
remain under his treatment; but we can not advise him to become cured. Why
this difference? Because getting treatment is under his power, but getting
cured is not in his power. It is something which comes from Allah.
Freedom of action is a gift of Allah. He has given us power, freedom,
strength, limbs, wisdom and everything with which we do any work.
Therefore, we are not independent of Allah, because our freedom is not only
given but even sustained by Him. However our actions are not compelled by
God, because He, after His showing us the right and wrong ways, and after
His encouraging us to do right, has left us to our own free will. If we go
wrong, it is our own choice. Shaykh Saduq stated:
"Our belief in this respect is what has been taught by Imam Jafar al-
Sadiq (the sixth successor/grandson of Prophet): There is no
compulsion (by God) and no relinquishing the authority (of God); but a
condition between these two conditions. Then Imam was asked: How is
it? He said: Suppose you see a man intending to commit a sin; and you
forbade him; but he did not listen to you; and you left him; and he
did commit that sin. Now when he did not pay attention to you and you
left him, nobody can say that you ordered him or allowed him to sin."
Shi'i reference: Shi'ite Creed (al-Itqadat al-Imamiyyah), by Shaykh Saduq
In other words, we believe that God has given us power and will and then
has left us free to do what we like. At the same time, He has taught us
through prophets, what is right and what is wrong. Now, as He is
Omniscient, He knows what will be our actions in different times of our
life. But this knowledge does not make Him responsible for our actions more
than a meteorologist can be responsible for cyclones and storms, if his
forecasts comes true. True forecasts are the result, not the cause of the
impending event. The Sunni scholars on the other hand say that Allah is the
Creator of all of our acts:
"No act of any individual, even though it is done purely for his
benefit is independent of the will of Allah for its existence; and
there does not occur in either in physical or extra terrestrial world
the wink of an eye, the hint of a thought, or the most sudden glance,
except by the decree of Allah...of His power, desire and will. This
includes evil and good, benefit and hurt, success and failure, sin and
righteousness, obedience and disobedience, and polytheism or belief."
Sunni reference: al-Ghazali (as quoted in Shia of India, p43)
Based upon their belief of LUTF (Grace), the Shiats believe that it is
incumbent upon Allah to send prophets and their successors in this world to
put people on right path. The Sunni scholars say that it is not incumbent
upon Allah, because they do not accept necessity of Grace.
The Shiats and Sunnis in first instance, and then the Sunnis among
themselves, disagree about the theory of ISMAH (sinlessness; protection) of
the prophets. What is our conception of sinlessness? It is the Grace of
Allah which helps a person to refrain from sins, without effecting in any
way his will and power. A MASUM (sinless person) has power to commit sins;
but he does not even think about sins because his spiritual standard is so
high that such inferior things do not enter his mind.
The Sunni scholars do not speak with one voice in this subject:
1. They first differ about the point when sinlessness of prophets begins.
Some Sunnis say it is after the declaration of prophet-hood; others say
that it is since childhood.
2. The scope of sinlessness before declaration of prophet-hood: Some Sunni
scholars say that it covers all sins; the majority say that they are
protected from KUFR (infidelity) only.
3. The scope of sinlessness after declaration of prophet-hood: It is agreed
that the prophets do not tell lie after prophet-hood. But what about
other sins? Some Sunni scholars say that they commit other sins either
intentionally or unintentionally; but the majority say that they could
commit it unintentionally, but not intentionally.
4. The minor sins: Some Sunni scholars say it was possible for prophets to
commit minor sins, even intentionally. But that they were protected from
such minor sins which might have degraded them in the eyes of people.
The Shia point of view about sinlessness is that all the prophets were
sinless and infallible; they did not commit any sin, whether capital or
minor, and whether intentionally or unintentionally; and that they were
sinless from the beginning of their life till their last breath. About the
prophets, Shaykh Saduq wrote:
"Their word is the word of God, their order is the order of God, their
forbidding is the forbidding by God ... And that the Chiefs of the
prophets are five, and they are (called) 'Ulul-Azm' and they are Noah,
Abraham, Moses, Jesus and Muhammad (be blessings of Allah upon them
all) and that Muhammad is their Chief and best of all."
Shiats say that Imam must be appointed by God; that appointment may be
known through the declaration of the Prophet or the preceding Imam. The
Sunni scholars say that Imam (or Caliph, as they prefer to say) can be
either elected, or nominated by the preceding Caliph, or selected by a
committee, or may gain the power through a military coup (as was in the
case of Muawiyah).
Shia scholars say that Imam must be sinless. The Sunni scholars (including
Mutazilites) say that sinlessness is not a condition for leadership. Even
if he is tyrant and sunk in sins (like in the case of Yazid, or Today's
King Fahd), the majority of the scholars from the shools of Hanbali,
Shafi'i, and Maliki discourage people to rise against that Caliph. They
think that they should be presevered.
Shiats say that Imam must possess above all such qualities as knowledge,
bravery, justice, wisdom, piety, love of God etc. The Sunni scholars say it
is not necessary. A person inferior in these qualities may be elected in
preference to a person having all these qualities of superior degree.
Shiats say that Ali was appointed by Allah to be the successor of the
Prophet, and that the Prophet declared it on several occasions. More than
one hundred of those occasions are recorded in the history. The Sunni
scholars believe that the Prophet did not appoint anybody to be his
successor. This is despite the fact that there are many traditions in the
six authentic Sunni collections which support this assignment.
Shiites and Sunnis unitedly believe about Imam Ali (A.S.)Did you know that both Shiites and Sunnis believe Verse 67 in Chapter Al-Ma’ida has been revealed on Ghadeer day and for the sake of Imam Ali’s (PBUH) guardianship (walaya)?
Shiite: Usul Kafi, Vol. 1, Pg 290
Sunni: Shavahed at-Tanzil, Vol. 1, Hadith 249
* * *Did you know that both Shiites and Sunnis believe Verse 55 in Chapter Al-Ma’ida regards Imam Ali’s (PBUH) ring donation during prayers (salaah) and obliges acceptance of his guardianship (walaya)?
Shiite: Noor al-Thaghalain (tafsir), verse interpretation
Sunni: Ibn Kathir’s Tafsir, verse interpretation
* * *Did you know that Verse 9 in Chapter An-Nisa urges everyone to obey Imam Ali (PBUH) and the other Imams (PBUT)?
Shiite: Kamal ad-Din, Vol. 1, Pg 222
Sunni: Shavahed Tanzil, Vol. 1, Hadith 202
* * *Did you know that, according to Verse 3 in Chapter Al-Ma’ida, one’s faith is completed by accepting Ghadeer and Imam Ali’s (PBUH) successorship?
Shiite: Usul Kafi, Vol. 1, Pg 290
Sunni: Shavahed at-Tanzil, Vol. 1, Hadith 211
* * *Did you know that both Shiites and Sunnis believe Verse 7 in Chapter al-Bayyina is about Imam Ali’s (PBUH) guardianship and that he is the best benefactor?
Shiite: Al-Burhan (tafsir), verse interpretation
Sunni: Dur al-Manthur, verse interpretation
* * *Did you know that both Shiites and Sunnis agree Verse 7 in Chapter Al-Ra’d introduces Imam Ali (PBUH) as the best guide and director for Muslims?
Shiite: Al-Burhan (tafsir), verse interpretation
Sunni: Musnad Ahmad, Chapter 2, Hadith 990
* * *Did you know that Verse 7 in Chapter Al-Anbiya suggests Imam Ali and other Imams (PBUT) the meaning of “those who reminisce (possess) the Message?”
Shiite: Tafsir Saafi, verse interpretation
Sunni: Shavahed at-Tanzil, verse interpretation
* * *Did you know that both Shiites and Sunnis believe Imam Ali (PBUH) possesses full insight of the Holy Quran according to Verse 43 in Chapter Al-Ra’d?
Shiite: Usul Kafi, Vol. 1, Pg 229
Sunni: Shavahed at-Tanzil, Vol. 1, Pg 400
* * *Did you know that “holding fast by the rope Allah (SWT) has stretched for you” in Verse 103 in Chapter Al-i-Imran means grasping on belief in Imam Ali’s and other Imams’s (PBUT) guardianship?
Shiite: Ghayba No’mani, Chapter 2, Hadith 2
Sunni: Shavahed at-Tanzil, Vol. 1, Pg 168
* * *Did you know that Holy Prophet (PBUH&HF) introduced Imam Ali (PBUH) as his successor in his party after the reveal of Verse 214 in Chapter Ash-Shu’ara?
Shiite: Al-Burhan (tafsir), verse interpretation
Sunni: Musnad Ahmad, Number 841
* * *Did you know that both Shiites and Sunnis have identically narrated the famous hadith “Whomever I am his master, this Ali is his master?”
Shiite: Usul Kafi, Vol. 1, Pg 293
Sunni: Musnad Ahmad Hanbal, Chapter 39, Pg 297, Hadith 18497
* * *Did you know that Holy Prophet (PBUH&HF) told Imam Ali (PBUH) that, “Your position to me is like Aaron’s to Moses?”
Shiite: Ershad Mofid, Vol. 1, Pg 8
Sunni: Sahih Bukhari, Chapter 13, Hadith 4064
* * *Did you know that Holy Prophet (PBUH&HF) has said, “Ali is of me and I am of him; and he is the guardian of the faithful?”
Shiite: Managheb Shahr-Ashoob, Vol. 3, Pg 51
Sunni: Sunan Tirmizi, Chapter 12, Number 3653
* * *Did you know that Holy Prophet (BUH&HF) mentioned, “My successors (imams) are only 12 ones?”
Shiite: Uyun Akhbar al-Reda, Vol. 1, Pg 64, Hadith 31
Sunni: Sahih Moslem, Vol. 9, Al-Amaarah, Hadith 3393
* * *Did you know that Holy Prophet (PBUH&HF) said, “One who passes away while does not know the Imam of his time dies as those in the Jahiliyya era?”
Shiite: Usul Kafi, Vol. 1, Chapter ‘Ma Yajibo Ala an-Nas (What people are obligated to do), Hadith 2
Sunni: Musnad Ahmad, Chapter 34, Hadith 16271
* * *Did you know that Holy Prophet (PBUH&HF) said, “I pass away while I leave two invaluable evocations: Quran and my family (Itra)?”
Shiite: Vasayel ush-Shia, Hadith 33144
Sunni: Sahih Moslem, Chapter 12, Number 4425
* * *Did you know that Holy Prophet (PBUH&HF) said, “I am the capital of insight and Ali is its portal?”
Shiite: Kamal ad-Din, Vol. 1, Chapter 22, Pg 241
Sunni: Mustadrak Hakim al-Nishaburi, Chapter 10, Number 4614
* * *Did you know that Holy Prophet (PBUH&HF) said, “Ali is with the truth and the truth is with Ali?”
Shiite: Khesal Sadugh, Chapter 2, Pg 496
Sunni: Tarikh Baghdad, Chapter 6, Section ‘al-Ya’, dekri man esmoho Yousef (the story of who whose name is Yousef), Pg 312
اُمّ الأئمّة فاطمة عليها السلام
. FATIMA, THE MOTHER OF THE IMAMS (AS)
- أسماءُ فاطِمَةَ عليها السلام. Fatima (AS)'s Names
قال رسولُ اللَّهِ صلى اللَّه عليه وآله : إنَّما سُمِّيَت ابنَتي فاطِمَةُ لأنَّ اللَّهَ عزّوجلّ فَطَمَها وفَطَمَ مَن أحَبَّها مِنَ النَّارِ .
1409.The Prophet (SAWA) said, 'My daughter was named Fatima because Allah, Mighty and Exalted, has weaned her 2 and weaned those who love her from the Fire.' 3
.الإمامِ الصادِق عليه السلام : لِفاطِمَةَ سَلامُ اللَّهِ عَلَيها تِسعَةُ أسماء عِندَ اللَّهِ عزّ وجلّ : فَاطِمَةُ وَالصِّديقَةُ والمُبارِكَةُ والطّاهِرَةُ و الزَّكيَّةُ والرَّضيَّةُ والمَرضيَّةُ والُمحَدَّثَةُ والزَّهراءُ .4.Imam al-Sadiq (AS) said, 'Fatima, salutetions of Allah be upon her, has nine names before Allah: Fatima, al-Siddiqa (the veracious one), al-Mubarika (the blessed), al-Tahira (the clean), al-Zakiyya (the pure), al-Radiyya (the content), al-Mardiyya (the one who pleases Allah), al-Muhadditha (the one who speaks to angels) and alZahra
the radiant one).' 5.معاني الأخبار عن عَمَّارَة : سَألتُ أبا عَبدِ اللَّهِ عليه السلام عَن فاطِمَةَ لِمَ سُمِّيَت زَهراء ؟ فَقال : لأنَّها كانَت اذا قامَت في مِحرابِها زَهَر نورُها لأهلِ السَّماءِ كَما يَزهَر نورُ الكواكبِ لأهلِ الأرض]]. Ammara narrated, 'I asked Aba Abdillah (AS) as to why Fatima has been named al-Zahra', to which he replied, 'Because when she stood for prayers in her prayer niche,her light would radiate for the dwellers of the skies jut as the light of the stars radiates for the dwellers of the earth.' 7]
1.الأمالي للطوسي :
2.The Arabic root fa-ta-ma, from which the name 'Fatima' is derived, means 'to wean' (ed.)
3.Amali al-Tusi, p.
4.الأمالي للصدوق : .
5.Amali al-Saduq, p.
6.معاني الأخبار :
7.Maani al-Akhbar, p.
- الإمام الحسن بن عليّ عليه السلام
. IMAM AL-HASAN B. ALI (AS)
- النَّصُّ عَلى إمامَتِهِ
Proofs for His imama
قال الإمامُ الباقرُ عليه السلام : إنّ أميرَ المؤمنينَ صلواتُ اللَّهِ علَيه لمّا حَضرَهُ الّذي حَضرَهُ قالَ لابنهِ الحسنِ : اُدْنُ منّي حتّى اُسِرَّ إليكَ ما أسرَّ رسولُ اللَّهِ صلى اللَّه عليه وآله إليَّ ، وأئتَمِنَكَ على ما ائتَمنَني علَيهِ ، فَفعَلَ .1
.Imam al-Baqir (AS) said, 'When death came to the Commander of the Faithful Imam Ali] (AS), he said to his son Hasan, 'Come closer to me so that I may tell you a
secret which the Prophet of Allah (SAWA) told me, and that I may entrust to you what he entrusted to me. And so he did.' 2]
Imam Husain (A.S.) in Sunni TraditionsIn this article, I would like to present some of the traditions recorded
in the Sunni collections of the traditions Regarding him:
The Messenger of Allah said: "Al-Hasan and al-Husain are the chiefs of the youth of Paradise and Fatimah is the chief of their women."
(1) Sahih al-Tirmidhi, v5, p660, on the authority of Abu Sa'id and Hudhayfa
(2) Sunan Ibn Majah, Introduction 8
(3) al-Tabarani, on the authorities of: Umar, Ali, Jabir, Abu Hurayrah,
Usamah Ibn Zaid, al-Baraa, Ibn 'Adi, and Ibn Masud.
(4) al-Kubra, by al-Nisa'i
(5) Musnad Ahmad Ibn Hanbal, v1, pp 62,82, v3, pp 3,64, v5, p391
(6) Fada'il al-Sahaba, by Ahmad Hanbal, v2, p771, Tradition #1360
(7) al-Mustadrak, by al-Hakim, v3, pp 166,167
(8) Hilyatul Awliyaa, by Abu Nu'aym, v5, p71
(9) Majma' al-Zawa'id, by al-Haythami, v9, p187
(10) Tuhfatul Ashraf, by Lumzi, v3, p31
(11) Ibn Habban, as mentioned in al-Mawarid, pp 551,553
(12) al-Sawa'iq al-Muhriqah, by Ibn Hajar Haythami, Ch. 11, section 3, p290
(13) Mishkat al-Masabih, by Khatib al-Tabrizi, English Version, Tdadition #6154
Also it is narrated that:
The Messenger of Allah said: "Husain is from me and I am from Husain."
(1) Musnad Ahmad Ibn Hanbal, v4, p172
(2) Fadha'il al-Sahaba, by Ahmad Hanbal, v2, p772, Tradition #1361
(3) al-Mustadrak, by al-Hakim, v3, p 177
(4) Amali, by Abu Nu'aym al-Isbahani, p 64
(5) al-Kuna wal Asmaa, by al-Dulabi, v1, p88
(6) al-Tabarani, v3, p21
(7) Adab by al-Bukhari, also al-Tirmidhi and Ibn Majah, as quoted in:
(8) al-Sawa'iq al-Muhriqah, by Ibn Hajar Haythami, Ch. 11, section 3, p291
(9) Mishkat al-Masabih, by Khatib al-Tabrizi, English Version, Tdadition #6160
The last part of the above tradition probably means that Imam Husain (AS),by sacrificing himself and his family, preserved the religion of Prophet Muhammad (S.A.W.) from full annihilation.
Abu Huraira narrated:
The Prophet (S.A.W.) looked toward Ali, Hasan, Husain, and Fatimah (AS),and then said: "I am in war with those who will fight you, and in peace with those who are peaceful to you."
(1) Sahih al-Tirmidhi, v5, p699
(2) Sunan Ibn Majah, v1, p52
(3) Fadha'il al-Sahaba, by Ahmad Ibn Hanbal, v2, p767, Tradition #1350
(4) al-Mustadrak, by al-Hakim, v3, p149
(5) Majma' al-Zawa'id, by al-Haythami, v9, p169
(6) al-Kabir, by al-Tabarani, v3, p30, also in al-Awsat
(7) Jami' al-Saghir, by al-Ibani, v2, p17
(8) Tarikh, by al-Khateeb al-Baghdadi, v7, p137
(9) Sawaiq al-Muhriqah, by Ibn Hajar al-Haythami, p144
(10) Talkhis, by al-Dhahabi, v3, p149
(11) Dhakha'ir al-Uqba, by al-Muhib al-Tabari, p25
(12) Mishkat al-Masabih, by Khatib al-Tabrizi, English Version, Tradition #6145
The Messenger of Allah said: "He who loves al-Hasan and al-Husain, has loved me, and he who makes them angry has made me angry."
- Sunan Ibn Majah,
- al-Mustadrak, by al-Hakim, from Abu Hurairah
- Musnad Ahmad Ibn Hanbal, as quited in:
- al-Sawa'iq al-Muhriqah, by Ibn Hajar Haythami, Ch. 11, section 3, p292
It is narrated in two wordings that:
The Messenger of Allah said: "I named Hasan and Husain and Muhsin the names of the sons of Aaron (Haroon) who were: Shubbar, Shubair, and Mushbir."
(1) Sunan Abu Dawud al-Tilyasi, v1, p232 (without mentioning Muhsin)
(2) Fadha'il al-Sahaba, by Ahmad Ibn Hanbal, v2, p774, Tradition #1365
(3) al-Mustadrak, by al-Hakim, v3, pp 165,168
(4) Kashf al-Astar, by al-Bazzar, v2, p416
(5) Ibn Habban, as quoted in al-Mawarid, p551
(6) al-Tabarani, v3, p100
(7) Idhaah, Abdul Ghani, from Salman al-Farsi
(8) al-Mu'jam, by al-Baghawi, as quoted in:
(9) al-Sawa'iq al-Muhriqah, by Ibn Hajar Haythami, Ch. 11, section 3, p292
Usamah ibn Zayd narrated:
I went to the Prophet (S.A.W.)one night about something I required
and he came out with something (I did not know what) under his cloak.
When I had finished telling him my business I asked him what he had
under his cloak, and when he opened it I saw al-Hasan and al-Husain on
his hips. He then said, "These are my sons and my daughter's sons. O
Allah, I love them, so I beseech Thee to love them and those who love
- Sahih Tirmidhi, per:
- Mishkat al-Masabih, by Khatib al-Tabrizi, English Version, Tdadition #6156
Anas ibn Malik Narrated:
When Allah's Messenger (S.A.W.) was asked which member of his family was the dearest to him, he replied, "Al-Hasan and al-Husain." He used to say to Fatimah, "Call my two sons to me," and then would sniff and cuddle them.
- Sahih Tirmidhi, per:
- Mishkat al-Masabih, by Khatib al-Tabrizi, English Version, Tdadition #6158
Imam Husain (AS) said: "Don't you see that the truth is not followed
and the falsehood is not discouraged? (The situation is so severe) so
that a Believer wishes to meet Allah (i.e., to die). And today I don't
see death but prosperity, and living with tyrants is nothing but
disgust and disgrace."
Sunni Reference: Hilyatul Awliyaa, by Abu Nu'aym, v2, p39
Imam Husain (AS) said in the day of Ashura: "If you do not have any
religion, then at least be noble and broad-minded in your present life."
u r welcome :t4409:
Non-Muslims and Hell
By: Hojjat al-Islam Mahdi Hadavi Tehrani
Question: We know of many people around the world who are not Muslims or Shi`a but are nevertheless individuals of good conduct; for example, non-Muslims are responsible for many inventions. Is it right that they all deserve to be punished in Hell because they are not Muslims?
Those who do not believe in Islam can be classified into two groups:
1. Those who are termed ‘Jahil-e-Muqassir’ (lit. ‘culpable ignorant’). These are non-believers to whom the message of Islam has reached and who have understood its truthfulness. However, they are not prepared to accept the truth due to their obstinacy and stubbornness. This group deserves to be punished in Hell.
2. Those who are termed ‘Jahil-e-Qasir’ (lit. ‘inculpable ignorant’). These are non-believers to whom the message of Islam has not reached, or it has been presented to them in a very incomplete and untruthful manner. Such people will attain salvation if they are truthful to their own religion.
Islam is a simple and accessible religion and it is easy to find out its truthfulness by means of the two guiding authorities that have been given to mankind: the ‘outer’ guiding authority, that is, Allah’s prophets and saints, and the ‘inner’ one, that is, the intellect.
Islam is in complete opposition to the concept of religious pluralism because this concept is based on the principle that different beliefs are equal and that Muslims, Hindus, Christians, Jews etc. all have the same rank and status. According to religious pluralism, no proof exists for the invalidity of any belief because the truth is unattainable and religion is a relative and completely personal affair. Not only are its truths and real substance unattainable and every person takes from it whatever he or she personally understands, but furthermore, there are numerous truths and many correct paths to salvation and deliverance.
Such views are inconsistent with the religion of Islam, which is comprised of a set of fundamental beliefs and practical, legal and ethical laws and principles. Islam does however give concessions to those who are far from its reality. This can be better understood when we consider that there are two groups of people who do not believe in Islam:
1. Those who are termed ‘Jahil-e-Muqassir’ (lit. ‘culpable ignorant’) and who are obstinate non-believers. That is, Islam has reached them and they have understood its truthfulness; however, they are not prepared to accept the truth due to their obstinacy and stubbornness. This group of non-believers deserves to be punished in Hell because despite having known the truth, they have chosen with their own free will to reject Islam. These non-believers, even though they may be of good conduct, could have attained salvation but instead have closed the path to salvation themselves as they have covered the truth and are rebellious and obstinate in relation to it. As a result, they have chosen their own predicament.
2. Those who are termed ‘Jahil-e-Qasir’ (lit. ‘inculpable ignorant’). These are non-believers to whom the message of Islam has not reached, or it has been presented to them in a very incomplete and untruthful manner; so for example, they think that Islam has the same status and rank as the religions of India and China and at the most, Judaism and Christianity. This group of non-believers, whether they live in the most remote parts of the world or in the most civilized, will not be subject to the punishments of Hell because they are not blameworthy for their lack of belief, and punishment is only for blameworthy sinners.
Unfortunately, there is so much propaganda against Islam that free thinking and seeking the truth has been taken away from many people in a way that they cannot distinguish truth from falsehood. The fact is that despite making significant material progress, contemporary man has regressed spiritually. The main cause of this is the ‘World Arrogance’—the superpower enemies of Islam—with its propagandist and deceptive media system that in full force tries to change and distort the truth. Therefore, many people, even in the most civilized of places, have remained unaware of the true message of Islam and of the enlivening Ahlul Bayt (ع) school of thought. Worse still, incorrect and unrealistic information about Islam is given to them in a way that a religion of mercy, love and justice is portrayed as a religion of violence, oppression and injustice.
In conclusion, from the point of view of Islam, those who have not heard about the true message of Islam and are not blameworthy with regard to this will attain salvation if they are truthful to their own religion. This religion must be based on the ‘fitrah’—man’s primordial, innate nature—and so the followers of such a religion, for example, abstain from lying and committing crimes against humanity. This rule is also applicable to the Ahlus Sunnah to whom the truthfulness of Shi’aism has not been explained correctly.
al-Kafi, v.1, p.25, no. 22
Fitrah: Allah says in the Qur`an, “The divine nature by which Allah has created mankind” (30:30). Therefore, the fitrah in every person is the root of all spiritual matters and goodness. Imam Rida (ع) has said, “And it is by means of the fitrah that His proof is substantiated” (al-Saduq, al-Tawhid, pg. 35. That is, whatever Allah has as argumentation is of no use without the fitrah. By this explanation, it becomes evident why in the terminology of Islamic philosophers and theologians the fitrah is referred to as the origin of all spiritual matters and goodness, in contrast to tabi’ah (nature), which is referred to as the origin of all material and instinctive matters. Man is a being of free will that continuously chooses the path of the fitrah or the way of tabi’ah, and it is with this free will that he determines his life in the Hereafter, as indicated in the famous hadith: “The World is a plantation for the Hereafter.”
شكرا جهد جبار
مع الاسف مااعرف انكليزي
شكرا اخي العزيز لهذا المرور الذي يعطر كل موضوع يمر فيه
هذا الموضوع لتحسين صورة الاسلام لعل بعض الاجانب يبحثون عن مواضيع تخص الدين الاسلامي
ويجدون هذا الموضوع الذي يخبرهم عن المعنى الحقيقي للاسلام الحمد لله نحن العرب نستطيع ان ندرس الاسلام بسهوله لانه بلغتنا اما الغرب فالكثير من الحقائق مخفيه عنهم